Dipole Moment (μ)
Dipole Moment (μ) Definition:
The dipole moment is an indicator of polarity in a molecule. It is expressed in a unit known as debye (D) and is calculated as the product of the partial charge (δ) on either end of a dipole and the distance of separation (d): μ = δ × d
Dipole Moment (μ) Explained:
The dipole moment is a direct consequence of the difference in electronegativity between atoms. For example in a simple H2O molecule, oxygen being more electronegative exerts a pull on the bonded electrons. This creates a partial positive charge over hydrogen ad a partial negative charge over the oxygen atom.
The dipole moment is drawn as an arrow with its head pointing towards the more electronegative atom.