Glossary

[4 +2] Cycloaddition

1,2-Addition

1,2-Adduct

1,2-Elimination

1,3-Diaxial Interaction

1,4-Addition

1,4-Adduct

A

Absorbance

Absorption Spectrum

Acetal

Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis

Acetylide Ion

Acid-Catalyzed Hydration

Acidic Cleavage

Activate

Acyl Group

Acyl Peroxide

Acylium Ion

Addition Polymers

Addition Reactions

Addition to Pi Bond

Adrenocortical Hormones

Alcohol

Aldaric Acid

Alditol

Aldol Addition Reaction

Aldol Condensation

Aldonic Acid

Aldose

Alkaloids

Alkanamine

Alkane

Alkene

Alkoxide

Alkoxy Substituent

Alkoxymercuration-Demercuration

Alkyl Amines

Alkyl Group

Alkyl Halide

Alkylation

Alkylthio Group

Alkynes

Alkynide Ion

Allylic

Allylic Bromination

Allylic Carbocation

Alpha Amino Acid

Alpha Anomer

Alpha Helix

Alpha Position

Alternating Copolymers

Amidomalonate Synthesis

Amine

Amino Acid

Amino Acid Residue

Amino Sugars

Amorphous

Amphoteric

Androgens

Angle Strain

Annulenes

Anomeric Carbon

Anomers

Anti Addition

Anti Conformation

Antiaromatic

Antibonding MO

Anti-Coplanar

Anti-Markovnikov Addition

Antioxidants

Anti-Periplanar

Arenium Ion

Aromatic

Aryl Amine

Asymmetric Hydrogenation

Asymmetric Stretching

Atactic

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

Atomic Orbital

Aufbau Principle

Autocatalytic

Autooxidation

Auxochrome

Axial Position

Axis of Symmetry

Azide Synthesis

Azo Coupling

Azo Dyes

B

Back-Side Attack

Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation

Base Peak

Beer’s Law

Bendling

Bent

Benzylic Position

Benzyne

Beta (b) Anomer

Beta Pleated Sheet

Beta Position

Beta Elimination

Bicyclic

Bimolecular

Biodegradable Polymers

Birch Reduction

Block Copolymer

Blocking Group

Boat Conformation

Bond Cleavage

Bond Dissociation Energy

Bonding MO

Bond-Line Structures

Branched Polymer

Bredt’s Rule

Bridgeheads

Broadband Decoupling

Bromohydrin

Bromonium Ion

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

Bronsted-Lowry Base

C

C Terminus

Carbinolamine

Carbocation

Carbohydrates

Carbonyl Group

Carboxylic Acid Derivative

Catalyst

Catalytic Hydrogenation

Cation

Cellular Respiration

Cephalins

Chain Branching

Chain Reaction

Chain-Growth Polymer

Chair Conformation

Chemical Shift

Chemically Equivalent

Chiral

Chirality Center

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Chlorohydrin

Chromatogram

Chromophore

Claisen Condensation

Claisen Rearrangement

Clemmensen Reduction

Column Chromatography

Complex Lipid

Condensation Polymer

Condensed Structure

Configuration

Conformation

Conjugate Acid

Conjugate Addition

Conjugate Base

Conjugated

Conjugated Diene

Conrotatory

Conservation of Orbital Symmetry

Constitutional Isomers

Constructive Interference

Continuous-Wave (CW) Spectrometer

Cope Rearrangement

Coplanar

Copolymer

Coupling (proton)

Coupling (radicals)

Coupling Constant

Covalent Bond

Crossed Aldol Reaction

Crossed Claisen Condensation

Crossed-Linked Polymer

Crown Ether

Crystallite

Cumulated Diene

Curved Arrows

Cyanohydrin

Cycloaddition Reactions

Cycloalkane

D

D Sugar

Dash

Deactivate

Debye (D)

Decarboxylation

Degenerate

Degenerate Orbitals

Degree of Substitution

Degree of Unsaturation

Dehydration

Dehydrohalogenation

Delocalization

Delocalized

Denaturation

DEPT 13C NMR

Deshielded

Desulfurization

Dextrorotatory

Diagnostic Region

Diamagnetic Anisotropy

Diamagnetism

Diastereomers

Diastereotopic

Diazonium Salt

Diazotization

Diborane

Dieckmann Cyclization

Diene

dienophile

Dihedral Angle

Dihydroxylation

Diol

Dipole Moment (m)

Dipole-Dipole Interactions

Directed Aldol Addition

Disaccharide

Disrotatory

Dissolving Metal Reduction

Disulfide

Disulfide Bridge

Divalent

Doublet

Downfield

E

E

E1

E1cb Mechanism

E2

Eclipsed Conformation

Edman Degradation

Eicosanoids

Elastomers

Electrocyclic Reaction

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electron Density

Electron Impact Ionization (EI)

Electrophile

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

Electrophoresis

electrospray ionization (ESI)

Electrostatic Potential Maps

Elimination

Elimination (of radicals)

Elimination-Addition

Enamine

Enantiomer

Enantiomeric Excess

Enantiomerically Pure

Enantiotopic

Endergonic

Endo

Endothermic

Energy of Activation

Enol

Enolate

Enthalpy

Entropy

Enzymes

Epimer

Epoxide

Equatorial Position

Equilibrium

Estrogens

Excited State

Exergonic

Exo

Exothermic

F

Fats

Fatty Acids

Fibers

Fibrous Proteins

Fingerprint Region

First Order

Fischer Esterification

Fischer Projections

Fishhook Arrow

Flagpole Interactions

Formal Charge

Fourier-Transform NMR (FT-NMR)

Fragmentation

Free Induction Decay

Freons

Frequency

Friedel-Crafts Acylation

Friedel-Crafts Alkylation

Frontier Orbital Theory

Frontier Orbitals

Frost Circles

Functional Group

Furanose

G

Gabriel Synthesis

Gas Chromatograph – Mass Spectrometer

Gauche Conformation

Gauche Interaction

Geminal

Gibbs Free Energy

Gilman Reagent

Glass Transition Temperature

Globular Proteins

Glycoside

Graft Copolymer

Grignard Reagent

H

Haloalkane

Haloform Reaction

Halogen Abstraction

Halogenation

Halohydrin Formation

Hammond Postulate

Haworth Projection

Heat of Combustion

Heat of Reaction

Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky Reaction

Hemiacetal

Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation

Heterocycle

Heterogeneous Catalyst

Heterolytic Bond Cleavage

High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Hofmann Elimination

Hofmann Product

HOMO

Homogeneous Catalysts

Homolitic Bond Cleavage

Homopolymer

Homotopic

Hückel’s Rule

Hund’s Rule

Hydrate

Hydration

Hydrazone

Hydride Shift

Hydroboration-Oxidation

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, (HCFCs)

Hydrocracking

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

Hydrogen Abstraction

Hydrogen Bonding

Hydrogen Deficiency Index (HDI)

Hydrohalogenation

Hydrolysis

Hydroperoxide

Hydrophilic

Hydrophobic

Hydroxyl Group

Hyperconjugation

I

Imidazole

Imine

Induction

Initiation

Integration

Intermediate

Intermolecular Forces

Internal Alkyne

Inversion of Configuration

Ionic Bond

Ionic Reaction

Isoelectric Point (pI)

Isolated Diene

Isoprene

Isotactic

IUPAC

J

J Value

K

Ka

Keq

Keto-Enol Tautomerization

Ketose

Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis

Kinetic Control

Kinetics

L

L Amino Acid

L Sugar

Labile

Lactone

Lambda Max (lmax)

Leaving Group

Lecithins

Leveling Effect

Levorotatory

Lewis Acid

Lewis Base

Lewis Structures

Linear Polymer

Lipid

Lipid Bilayer

Lithium Dialkyl Cuprate

Living Polymer

Localized Lone Pair

Locant

London Dispersion Forces

Lone Pair

Loss of a Leaving Group

LUMO

M

Magnetic Moment

Malonic Ester Synthesis

Markovnikov Addition

Mass Spectrometer

Mass Spectrometry

Mass Spectrum

Mass-to-Charge Ratio(m/z)

Meisenheimer Complex

Melt Transition Temperature (Tm)

Mercapto Group

Mercurinium Ion

Merrifield Synthesis

Meso Compound

Meta

Meta Director

Methine Group

Methyl Shift

Methylene Group

Micelle

Michael Acceptor

Michael Donor

Michael Reaction

Migratory Aptitude

Miscible

Mixed Aldol Reaction

Moderate Activators

Moderate Deactivators

Molar Absorptivity

Molecular Dipole Moment

Molecular Ion

Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory

Molecular Orbitals

Monosaccharides

Monovalent

Multiplet

Multiplicity

Mutarotation

 

N

N Terminus

N+1 Rule

N-Bromosuccinimide

Newman Projection

N-Glycoside

Nitration

Nitrogen Rule

Nitronium Ion

Nitrosonium Ion

Nitrous Acid

N-Nitrosamine

Node

Nomenclature

Nonaromatic

Norbornane

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

Nucleophile

Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution

Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution

Nucleophilic Attack

Nucleosides

Nucleotides

O

Observed Rotation

Octet Rule

Off-Resonance Decoupling

Oils

Oligomers

Optically Active

Optically Inactive

Optically Pure

Organohalide

Ortho

Ortho-Para Director

Oxaphosphetane

Oxidation

Oxidation State

Oxime

Oxirane

Oxonium Ion

Oxymercuration-Demercuration

Ozonolysis

P

Para

Parent Ion

Partially Condensed Structures

Pauli Exclusion Principle

Peptidases

Peptide

Peptide Bond

Pericylic Reactions

Periplanar

Peroxides

Phenolate

Phenoxide

Phenyl Group

Phosphatidic Acid

Phosphoglycerides

Phospholipids

Photochemical Reaction

Photon

Physiological PH

Pi (p) Bond

Plane of Symmetry

Plane-Polarized Light

Plasticizers

Polar Aprotic Solvent

Polar Covalent Bond

Polar Reaction

Polarimeter

Polarizability

Polarization

Polycarbonates

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Polyether

Polynucleotide

Polysaccharides

Polyurethanes

Polyvinyl Chloride, (PVC)

Primary

Primary Alkyl Halide

Primary Structure

Progestins

Propagation

Prostaglandins

Prosthetic Group

Protecting Group

Proteins

Protic Solvent

Proton Transfer

Pyranose Ring

Pyrimidine

Q

Quantum Mechanics

Quartet

Quaternary Ammonium Salt

Quaternary Structure

Quintet

R

R

Racemic Mixture

Radical

Radical Anion

Radical Inhibitor

Radical Initiator

Random Copolymer

Rate Equation

Rate-Determining Step

Reaction Mechanism

Rearrangement

Reducing Agent

Reducing Sugar

Reduction

Reductive Amination

Regiochemistry

Regioselective

Replacement Test

Resolution

Resolving Agents

Resonance

Resonance Hybrid

Resonance Stabilization

Resonance Structures

Retention of Configuration

Retention Time

Retro-Aldol Reaction

Retro Diels-Alder Reaction

Retrosynthetic Analysis

Ring Flip

Robinson Annulation

S

S

Sandmeyer Reactions

Saponification

Saturated

Saturated Hydrocarbon

Schiemann Reaction

S-cis

S-trans

Second Order

Secondary

Secondary Alkyl Halide

Secondary Structure

Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation

Shielded

Sigma (s) Bond

Sigma Complex

Sigmatropic Rearrangements

Simple Lipid

Singlet

SSN1

SN2

Sodium Cyanoborohydride

Soluble

Solvent Extraction

Solvolysis

Sp-Hybridized

Sp2-Hybridized Orbitals

Sp3-HybridizedOorbitals

Specific Rotation

Spectroscopy

Spin-Spin Splitting

Spontaneous

Staggered Conformation

Standard Atomic Weight

Step-Growth Polymers

Stereoisomers

Stereoselective

Stereospecific

Steric Number

Sterically Hindered

Steroids

Stork Enamine Synthesis

S-trans

Strecker Synthesis

Stretching

Strong Activators

Strong Deactivators

Structural Proteins

Substituents

Substitution Reactions

Substrate

Sulfide

Sulfonate Ions

Sulfonation

Sulfone

Sulfoxide

Superimposable

Symmetric Stretching

Symmetrical Ether

Symmetry Allowed

Symmetry Forbidden

Syn Addition

Syn-Coplanar

Syndiotactic

Systematic Name

T

Tautomers

Terminal Alkynes

Termination

Termolecular

Terpenes

Tertiary

Tertiary Alkyl Halide

Tertiary Structure

Tetrahedral

Tetrahedral Intermediate

Tetravalent

Thermodynamic Control

Thermodynamics

Thermoplastics

Thermosetting Resins

Thioacetal

Thiolate

Thiols

Third Order

Three-Center, Two-Electron Bonds

Torsional Angle

Torsional Strain

Tosylate

Transition State

Transport Protein

Triglyceride

Trigonal Planar

Trigonal Pyramidal

Triplet

Trivalent

Twist Boat

U

Unimolecular

Unsaturated

Unsymmetrical Ether

Upfield

V

Valence Bond Theory

Vibrational Excitation

Vicinal

Vinylic

Vinylic Carbocation

VSEPR Theory

W

Wavelength

Wavenumber

Waxes

Weak Activators

Weak Deactivators

Wedge

Williamson Ether Synthesis

Wittig Reaction

Wittig Reagent

Wohl Degradation

Wolff-Kishner Reduction

Woodward-Fieser Rules

Y

Ylide

Z

Z

Zaitsev Product

Zwitterion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MD