Wolff Rearrangement

Wolff Rearrangement Wolff Rearrangement Definition: Treatment of an acid halide with diazomethane (CH2N2) followed by heating leads to the formation of a ketene which can be further used in many synthetic reactions. Wolff Rearrangement Explained: The Wolff…

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Stork Enamine Reaction

Stork Enamine Reaction Stork Enamine Reaction Definition: The Stork enamine reaction is a method for alkylation or acylation of ketones through intermediates enamines. Stork Enamine Reaction Explained: Ketones cannot be directly alkylated or acylated but when treated with secondary…

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Robinson annulation

Robinson annulation Robinson Annulation Definition: The Robinson Annulation is a method for forming the six-membered ring. It is a sequential combination of the Michael addition and the intramolecular aldol condensation. Robinson Annulation Explained: The Robinson annulation is a ring-forming…

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Pinacol Rearrangement

Pinacol Rearrangement Pinacol Rearrangement Definition: The Pinacol Rearrangement involves the shift of an alkyl group accompanied by loss of water and the conversion of an alcohol to a ketone (or aldehyde). Pinacol Rearrangement Explained: The Pinacol rearrangement is a method for converting a 1,2-diol to…

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Oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols

Oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols Oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols Definition: Treatment of vicinal (or 1,2-) diols with an oxidant such as NaIO4, HIO4, or Pb(OAc)4 cleaves carbon-carbon bonds and forms carbonyl compounds. Oxidative cleavage of…

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Mannich Reaction

Mannich Reaction Mannich Reaction Definition: The Mannich reaction is an organic reaction used to convert a primary or secondary amine and two carbonyl compounds (one non-enolizable and one enolizable) to a β-aminocarbonyl compound, also known as a Mannich base, using an acid or base catalyst.…

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Malonic Ester / Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis

Malonic Ester / Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis Malonic Ester/Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis Definition: The Malonic ester synthesis is a method for making substituted carboxylic acids. It is a combination of four reactions: Deprotonation Alkylation Acidic…

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Kiliani Fischer Synthesis

Kiliani Fischer Synthesis Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis Definition: The Kiliani-Fischer synthesis is a method by which we can lengthen the carbon chain on a sugar molecule by adding an additional carbon atom to that sugar. Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis Explained: Larger…

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Hell-Vollhard-Zolinsky Reaction

Hell-Vollhard-Zolinsky Reaction Hell-Volhardt-Zelinsky Reaction Definition: The Hell-Volhardt-Zelinsky [HVZ] reaction is a means of converting a carboxylic acid to a brominated carboxylic acid (the bromine ends up on the α carbon…

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