Reduction [LiAlH4]

Reduction [LiAlH4] Reduction [LiAlH4] Definition: Addition of lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) to carboxylic acids leads to the formation of primary alcohols (after addition of acid). Reduction [LiAlH4] Explained: Lithium aluminum hydride abbreviated LAH, is capable of…

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Deprotonation [carboxylate formation]

Deprotonation [carboxylate formation] Deprotonation [carboxylate formation] Definition: When treated with base, carboxylic acids form carboxylate salts. Deprotonation [carboxylate formation] Explained: Carboxylic acids exhibit both acidic and basic character: Deprotonation to carboxylate ions is relatively easy, but protonation more difficult. Carboxylic acids are weaker acids than…

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Decarboxylation [of β-keto acids]

Decarboxylation [of β-keto acids] Decarboxylation [of β-keto acids] Definition: When carboxylic acids containing a carbonyl group two bonds away (on the β carbon) are heated, carbon dioxide is lost. Decarboxylation [of β-keto acids] Explained: β-Keto (or 3-keto) acids have another…

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Conversion to carboxylic acids [H2O]

Conversion to carboxylic acids [H2O] Conversion to carboxylic acids [H2O] Definition: Treatment of acid chlorides with water leads to the formation of carboxylic acids. This is called hydrolysis of acid chlorides. Conversion to carboxylic acids [H2O] Explained:…

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Conversion to acid chloride [SOCl2]

Conversion to acid chloride [SOCl2] Conversion to acid chloride [SOCl2] Definition: Thionyl chloride converts carboxylic acids into acid chlorides. This reaction liberates HCl and SO2 gas. Conversion to acid chloride [SOCl2] Explained: Replacement of the…

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