Sulfonylation [SO3/H2SO4]

Sulfonylation [SO3/H2SO4] Sulfonylation [SO3/H2SO4] Definition: Treatment of an aromatic molecule such as benzene with sulfur trioxide and strong acid leads to the formation of sulfonic acid in the reaction of electrophilic aromatic substitution. Sulfonylation [SO3/H2SO4] Explained: Concentrated sulfuric acid…

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Side chain bromination

Side chain bromination Side chain bromination Definition: When treated with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and light (hν) alkyl group adjacent to aromatic groups will be converted to into alkyl bromides. Side chain bromination Explained: This reaction is analogous to allylic…

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Reduction of nitro groups

Reduction of nitro groups Reduction of nitro groups Definition: Nitro groups can be converted into amino groups by treatment with reducing agents such as palladium on carbon with hydrogen (Pd/C, H2), zinc (Zn) metal with…

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Reduction of aromatic ketones

Reduction of aromatic ketones Reduction of aromatic ketones Definition: When treated with a metal catalyst such as palladium (Pd) or platinum (Pt) and hydrogen gas (H2) ketones next to aromatic groups are converted to alkanes. Reduction of…

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Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (SNAr)

Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (SNAr) Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (SNAr) Definition: Nucleophilic aromatic substitution is a reaction in which the aromatic ring is attacked by the nucleophile. For example, when an aromatic compound is treated with…

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Nitration [HNO3/H2SO4]

Nitration [HNO3/H2SO4] Nitration [HNO3/H2SO4] Definition: Aromatic groups can be nitrated by the action of nitric acid and an acid catalyst in the reaction of electrophilic aromatic substitution. Nitration [HNO3/H2SO4] Explained: When treated benzene ring with concentrated nitric…

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Iodination [I2/catalyst]

Iodination [I2/catalyst] Iodination [I2/catalist] Definition: Treatment of an aromatic such as benzene with iodine (I2) and copper (II) leads to the formation of the iodinated benzene by electrophilic aromatic substitution. Iodination [I2/catalyst] Explained: Since iodine is unreactive toward aromatic…

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Friedel Crafts alkylation [R-X plus catalyst]

Friedel Crafts alkylation [R-X plus catalyst] Friedel Crafts alkylation [R-X plus catalyst] Definition: In Friedel-Crafts alkylation, treatment of benzene with an alkyl halide and a Lewis acid (AlCl3 or FeCl3) forms an alkylbenzene. This reaction is an alkylation because it results…

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Friedel Crafts acylation [RCOX plus catalyst]

Friedel Crafts acylation [RCOX plus catalyst] Friedel Crafts acylation [RCOX plus catalyst] Definition: In Friedel-Crafts acylation, a benzene ring is treated with an acid chloride (RCOCl) and catalyst (AlCl3 or FeCl3) to form a ketone. Because the new group…

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Chlorohydrin formation [Cl2/H2O]

Chlorohydrin formation [Cl2/H2O] Chlorohydrin Formation Definition: The chlorohydrin formation reaction involves adding chlorine and water to a double bond and creating a chlorohydrin (chloro=chlorine, hydrin=hydro, water/H2O). Chlorohydrin Formation Explained: When chlorination occurs in a non-nucleophilic solvent, such as CHCl3 or…

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