Partial reduction [Na/NH3]

Partial reduction [Na/NH3] Partial Reduction (Na/NH3) Definition: Alkynes treated with sodium in ammonia are reduced to trans alkenes. Alternatively, potassium in ammonia can also be used. Partial Reduction (Na/NH3) Explained: When we…

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Ozonolysis

Ozonolysis Ozonolysis Definition: Alkynes treated with ozone (O3) will be cleaved at the triple bond to form carboxylic acids. Terminal alkynes give carboxylic acid and carbon dioxide (CO2). Ozonolysis Explained:…

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Oxymercuration

Oxymercuration Oxymercuration Definition: Alkynes treated with mercury (usually HgSO4) and water will be hydrated to give ketones, via an enol intermediate. Oxymercuration Explained: Hydration of alkynes is similar to the acid-catalyst addition of the water to alkenes, but the…

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Oxidative cleavage [KMnO4]

Oxidative cleavage [KMnO4] Oxidative cleavage Definition: The oxidative cleavage is the cleavage of the triple bond in the alkyne by an oxidizing agent such as potassium permanganate (KMnO4) which cleave…

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Hydrogenation of Alkynes

Hydrogenation of Alkynes Hydrogenation of Alkynes Definition: Hydrogenation of alkynes is the addition of hydrogen to a triple bond in the presence of a catalyst. Hydrogenation of Alkynes Explained: Alkynes…

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Hydroboration

Hydroboration Hydroboration Definition: Hydroboration is the treatment of alkynes with BH3, followed by H2O2 in which aldehydes and ketones are obtained. Hydroboration Explained: Hydroboration is a two-step reaction sequence which proceeds via an anti-Markovnikov addition where installing a hydroxyl group at…

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Deprotonation (acetylide formation)

Deprotonation (acetylide formation) Deprotonation (acetylide formation) Definition: Deprotonation is a treatment of acetylene with a strong base such as NaNH2 or NaH where acetylide (alkynide) anion is obtained. Deprotonation (acetylide formation) Explained: Acetylide (Alkynide)…

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Alkyne formation via elimination

Alkyne formation via elimination Alkyne formation via elimination Definition: Alkynes are made from geminal or vicinal dihaloalkanes by double elimination. Alkenyl halides are intermediate, being formed stereospecifically in the first…

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