Wolff-Kishner: reduction to alkanes

Wolff-Kishner: reduction to alkanes Wolff-Kishner: reduction to alkanes Definition: The Wolff-Kishner reduction is a reaction for converting carbonyls (such as aldehydes or ketones) into alkanes. Wolff-Kishner: reduction to alkanes Explained: The deoxygenation reaction is a reduction of a…

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Wittig reaction: alkene formation

Wittig reaction: alkene formation Wittig Reaction Definition: The Wittig reaction is a useful way of forming alkenes from phosphorus ylides (Wittig reagents) and aldehydes or ketones. Wittig Reaction Explanation: The chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a…

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Thioacetal formation

Thioacetal formation Thioacetal formation Definition: In analogy for the formation of acetals from alcohols and acid, treatment of aldehydes or ketones with thiols in the presence of an acid produces a thioacetal. Thioacetal formation Explained: Sulfur is located in the same group…

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Reduction of ketones [NaBH4]

Reduction of ketones [NaBH4] Reduction of ketones [NaBH4] Definition: Addition of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to ketones gives secondary alcohols (after addition of acid). Reduction of ketones [NaBH4] Explained: Reduction, in organic chemistry, means the addition of hydrogen to molecule or removal…

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Reduction of ketones [LiAlH4]

Reduction of ketones [LiAlH4] Reduction of ketones [LiAlH4] Definition: Addition of lithium aluminum hydride to ketones leads to the formation of secondary alcohols (after addition of acid). Reduction of ketones [LiAlH4] Explained: Reduction, in organic chemistry, implies…

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Reduction of aldehydes [NaBH4]

Reduction of aldehydes [NaBH4] Reduction of aldehydes [NaBH4] Definition: Addition of sodium borohydride, NaBH4 to aldehydes gives primary alcohols (after adding acid). Reduction of aldehydes [NaBH4] Explained: By reducing the carbonyl group alcohols can be obtained. Primary alcohols are…

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Reduction of aldehydes [LiAlH4]

Reduction of aldehydes [LiAlH4] Reduction of aldehydes [LiAlH4] Definition: Addition of lithium aluminum hydride to aldehydes leads to the formation of primary alcohols (after addition of acid). Reduction of aldehydes [LiAlH4] Explained: Reduction of carbonyl compounds can…

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Oxidation to carboxylic acids [Tollens]

Oxidation to carboxylic acids [Tollens] Oxidation to carboxylic acids [Tollens] Definition: When Ag2O is added to aldehydes, carboxylic acids are formed. The results in the formation of silver metal (“silver mirror”) a reaction known as the Tollens test.…

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Oxidation to carboxylic acid [H2CrO4 or KMnO4]

Oxidation to carboxylic acid [H2CrO4 or KMnO4] Oxidation to carboxylic acid [H2CrO4 or KMnO4] Definition: Chromium trioxide and water will oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids. Oxidation to carboxylic acid [H2CrO4 or KMnO4] Explained: The most common oxidation reaction of…

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Keto-Enol tautomerism

Keto-Enol tautomerism Keto-enol tautomerism Definition: Ketones and other carbonyl compounds containing a hydrogen adjacent to the carbonyl are in the equilibrium with a constitutional isomer called enol. Keto-enol tautomerism Explained: Protonation of enolate into oxygen…

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